Implementation Challenges in Perspective of Out of School Children: Analysis of Policies and Projects through Cultural Audit Approach

Mamonah Ambreen & Muhammad Athar Hussain


The objectives of this research were to find out implementation challenges of the educational projects and policies, analyze if these policies address the issue of out of school children, and explore the parental preferences for their children’s future and concerns about the educational facilities. Cultural audit approach was adopted for identification and analysis of gaps in policies and their implementation mechanism for the enhancement of school enrolment. Ethnographic research model was used to collect field data from the government officials including policy implementers, and the parents living in the suburban areas of Islamabad. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data. First eight Five-Year Plans and the last three educational policies were analyzed to find out the real issues at formulation and implementation levels. Almost 24 million children were out of school before completing primary level. The study concluded that a lot of resources were consumed while formulation of educational policies and plans. None of these Plans and Policies attained their desired goals. These policies were made without a proper knowledge of ground realities. There was always a gap between the policies makers and the implementers. Communication and coordination may be improved among the implementers so that the best results may be achieved

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