Pakistan Journal of Distance & Online Learning
Volume: III, Issue: I, 2017
Availability and Problems Relating to the
Accessibility of Information and Communication
Technologies (ICT’s) Among University Students
Mahek Arshad
*
Quratul Ain Hina
**
Abstract
Information and Communication Technologies plays an important role in
today’s information societies and educational systems of nations.
Information and Communication Technologies are of greatest
significance for the future of education in Pakistan. The major purpose of
the study was to explore the availability and problems relating to the
accessibility of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT’s)
among university students. The study was descriptive type in nature.
Major objectives of the study were to find out the availability of
Information and Communication Technologies for university students
and to investigate the problems faced by university students in accessing
Information and Communication Technologies. Stratified random sample
of 294 students of two leading public sector universities located at
Islamabad were selected. Data were collected from departments of social
sciences. Likert-scale questionnaire was developed by researcher and for
the function of validity and reliability questionnaire was subjected to a
pilot run. Data were transferred to SPSS 19.0 for statistical analysis
including percentage and mean analysis. The major findings of the study
revealed students agreement upon the fact that Information and
Communication Technologies are not available for them at university.
Results showed that majority of students were having problem in
accessing Information and Communication Technologies because of
load-shading of electricity, unavailability of projectors, lectures in the
form of CD’s and DVDs, slow internet and difficulty in accessing
*
Assistant Professor, Department of Education, National University of Modern
Languages, Islamabad. Email: mehakrshd@gmail.com
**
Assistant Professor, Department of Education, National University of Modern
Languages, Islamabad. Email: drquratulainhina@gmail.com
Mahek Arshad, Quratul Ain Hina 34
websites at university. It is recommended that computers, laptops,
printers, multimedia, lectures in electronic form and scanners may be
provided to university students sufficiently and trained technical staff
should be available at university to resolve issues related with
Information and Communication Technology equipment for students.
Keywords: Availability, Problems, ICT, University Student
Availability and Problems Relating to the Accessibility of ICT… 35
Introduction
Where technology make teaching learning process effective on the
other hand it make education crucial, developing countries are under
pressure to afford educational opportunities for all. ICT restore interest to
education it take students to the exciting journey through the use of
audio, video technology, movies, computer etc. it provide sound and
movement to the static material. Education at tertiary level is going
through maelstrom of change which is nerve-racking for those people
who are working in this condition. It is very significant to keep in mind
that information and communication technology is taking place in this
context, Information system to educational course as tool is very
important in learning and teaching. Information system has been
developed to control the activities in teaching and learning and make the
learning more meaningful and more effective. Technology plays
extremely a significant part in the field of education. Technologies has
different indicators and levels that involve different methods of
collecting information that have impact of ICT on educators such as
National level, Local level and Institutional level. Teachers,
administrators and managers all need to be adequate equipped to
maximize the integration of ICT in education system (Somekh, 2007).
In Pakistan mostly leaders and administration of colleges and
universities are less concerned regarding the utilization of information and
communication technology in educational institution due to no training
facilities, low budget and unavailability of resources. The focus of the
present study will be on ICT use and issues students are facing regarding
Information and Communication Technologies in universities. There is a
widespread ignorance about the use, applications and advantages of
Information and Communication Technologies on the part of teachers,
leader of institution and educational authorities responsible for bringing
improvement in the functioning of educational system. Most of the
teachers and students have fear in using Information and Communication
Technologies and they want to stick to the traditional method of teaching
and learning because of lack of training, understanding and ignorance. A
mere literacy related to Information and Communication Technologies is
not sufficient for enabling students to make use of these technologies in a
fruitful way. The major purpose of the study was to get hold of
information about the availability and problems relating to the accessibility
of Information and Communication Technologies among university
Mahek Arshad, Quratul Ain Hina 36
students. The study aimed to provide guideline and information to the
educators, teachers, educationists, administrations and researchers.
Significance of the Study
The study is important from theoretical perspective and contributes
to the current knowledge. The present study will be beneficial for
teachers to understand the need of using Information and
Communication Technologies in their teaching, lesson planning, and
acquisition of related material and techniques. The study is beneficial for
educational counselors working at universities by knowing the
importance and need of ICTs in student’s life and can help them to
interact with their clients including teachers, students and parents for
providing educational, vocational and personal guidance. The study will
try to catch the attention of educational administrators and planners
towards the existing condition of Information and Communication
Technologies at tertiary level and emerging trends of Information and
Communication Technology and its existing functioning which will guide
them in taking decisions at various stages. The study may be of concern to
teachers, students and stakeholders that will advantage from the
improvement in educational institutions. National Educational policy
maker may utilize the findings of the study for future educational policies.
Literature Review
University education is recognized as higher education which is non-
compulsory level education which includes under graduate and post
graduate level. University education is very important for the
development of country both as a significant industry and a source of
trained educated personnel for country. Communication begins when one
person, animal or machine transmits or sends a message to a new person,
animal or machine. Communication technology is the technology that
makes it possible for people to communicate, receive, store, process and
understood information more efficiently and more effectively (Haynie,
1998). Information and communication technologies included both
hardware elements and software elements. The UNESCO use the word
ICTs to describe: The tools and the process to access, retrieve, store,
organize, manipulate, produce, present and swap over information by
electronic and other means. These include hardware, software and
telecommunications in the forms of scanners, digital cameras, personal
Availability and Problems Relating to the Accessibility of ICT… 37
computers, phones, faxes, modems, CD and DVD players and recorders,
digitized video, radio, database and multimedia programmes (UNESCO
Bangkok, 2003).
Ramzan and Singh (2009) in their study found that 91.3% of
academic libraries in Pakistan are having internet and emailing facilities.
Mainly there are three keys to effectual incorporation of information and
communication technology in learning institutes. First key is to promote
and train the faculty in using technologies in teaching learning process,
second key is to apply technologies to assist on the whole student
productivity and to help them in their individual learning and third key is
to map activities to get done with the technologies (Venkataiah, 2001).
In many developed countries the landscape of university education
has changed dramatically. Many countries established and expanded
their educational institutions that are clear alternatives to traditional
universities. A student of university is presented with many challenges
including issues of freedom, rights and duties, career choices, lack of
facilities, globalization and social cultural pressures. A student position
is to be motivated regarding their education, if they are really concerned
about their learning it is their work to think because when thinking
process starts it will able them to discover some previous experience or
knowledge to relate to new learning. When doing so they should
mentally get ready themselves to learn more about this new idea.
Learners should be act like active participants in the learning process by
creating and maintaining a supportive and motivational learning
environment where all students can learn mutually. As mankind starts its
journey into the new millennium we observe two major forces shaping
up the future of humankind which are Globalization and Information
Communication Technologies. We exist in a blaze of huge change a
more and more global society determined by the exponential
development of new knowledge and knitted together by quickly evolving
Information and Communication Technologies. Our world nowadays is
undergoing a very quick and thoughtful social transformation, driven by
powerful Information and Communication Technology that have
stimulated a drastically new system for creating prosperity that depends
upon educated citizens and their ideas (Weber & Duderstadt, 2008).
The implementation of Information and Communication
Technologies in education system lends itself to advance student-
centered learning settings but with the world moving quickly towards the
digital media and information tools, the role of ICT in education settings
is becoming more and more important and this importance will go on to
raise and expand in 21
st
century. Information and Communication
Mahek Arshad, Quratul Ain Hina 38
Technologies have become a key tool in acquiring, processing and
scheming knowledge. It has turn out to be a very central instrument for
investing developing of a nation in 21
st
century the ground-breaking
effects of ICT on all sectors of the world has not spared educational
sector. Information and communication technology has been promoted
as a massive hope of modern education, the enormous liberator and the
general currency of the knowledge age all over the world. Education
sector is in front of a huge challenge of preparing and training students
and teachers for upcoming knowledge base civilization at a time when
the greater part of teachers are not skilled and trained to utilize ICT and a
number of institutes are not prepared to integrate the new ICTs. The
utilization of technologies in education sector is a tough, complex and
expensive undertaking including a mass of issues like lack of
infrastructure, problems in curricula changes, lack of teachers training,
not enough and untrained technical support and so on. Information and
communication technologies are growing quickly and once recognized
national educational policies on information and communication
technologies have to be regularly updated if they are to react adequately
to the challenge of successfully exploiting these constant changes to the
technologies (Mishra, 2005).
Tinio (2002) notes that information and communication technology
are dominant apparatus for educational sector’s revolution and reforms.
If used properly diverse information and communication technologies
can assist in increasing access to education, reinforce the importance of
education to the workplace and lift educational excellence by creating an
active procedure related to real life. Information and communication
technology contributed to efficient learning all the way through
increasing contact, promoting competence, improving the brilliance of
knowledge and uplifting management system.
Pakistan has either urbanized in the procedure of rising distinct
information and communication technologies for education policies. A
main feature is the significance of technologies equally as a subject and
as instructional aide. Pakistan formulates its National Information and
Communication Technology Strategy for Education (NICT) all through a
review procedure in 2004-05. The policy distinguish the need and
importance of information and communication technologies for creating
contact, amplification of teacher education, improving worth of learning
and civilizing student attainment. The NICT in Pakistan has emphasized
the value of information and communication technologies in education
with some of the linked provisions being to:
Availability and Problems Relating to the Accessibility of ICT… 39
Begin a plan for providing low-cost computers and internet
connectivity to universities, colleges and schools throughout public/
private sector initiatives.
Network all public and private universities, engineering and medical
colleges and institutions of higher education for enhanced worth of
education.
Systematize electronic libraries to make quicker, sure economical
and equitable access to world- wide information of different subject
matters.
Maintain educational services to automate their registration,
examinations, accounting and other actions.
Support educational services to take up computer-assisted education
and other information and communication technology apparatus to
aid in the teaching process.
Create different virtual classroom education programmes by means
of online system, Internet and video facilities to present distance
learning to a huge number of individuals all over the country.
Begin a national educational Intranet to allow distribution of
electronic libraries of teaching and research resources and faculty.
NICT envisages the requirement to make certain suitable planning,
management, support, monitoring and appraisal of information and
communication technology initiatives by organizing ongoing efforts and
planning to make sure capacity building at the federal and provincial
levels and creating an outer body which advices and guide the Ministry of
Education on information and communication technologies for education.
Particularly the NICT suggests establishing a Technical Implementation
Unit (TIU) for ICTs for education which will expand the technical
planning, monitoring and assessment capacity of policy makers, educators,
planners and administrators at national, provincial, district and institutional
levels. It will also link with teacher training institutes, oversee the
achievement of NICT approach and hold up on the whole monitoring of
education through the national EMIS (OECD, 2009).
Pew Internet (2003) surveyed 1000 experts asking them how much
transform on a 10 point scale the internet will take to institutions. The
results positioned education with a score of 7.98. The internet is
obviously projected to make major changes to education. Internet gives
both students and teachers access to huge educational resources
including tutorials, online courses, researches, articles, journals, lesson
plans and presentations and provides ability to work together with others
Mahek Arshad, Quratul Ain Hina 40
and answer questions that cannot be answered by own. Rajani and
Chandio (2004) surveyed a sample taken from Pakistani teens, adults and
senior citizens of miscellaneous professions like students, teachers,
doctors, employed and unemployed both male and females of different
fields. The ending results recommend that larger part of the users decided
with the prospective of internet as useful resource and understand the
attempt concerned in efficiently utilizing this valuable resource. The study
also exposed that the students used the internet for instructive purposes.
Rising countries such as Pakistan are at present lagging in terms of
broadband adoption and diffusion compared to urbanized countries, the
use and adoption of broadband is still in its infancy in Pakistan.
Kwacha (2007) illustrate that main obstacles related with the
efficient completion of ICT are the lack of qualified information and
communication technologies personnel, cost of equipment, managing
attitudes, low funds and inconsistent electric power supply. Many
universities acquired various types of ICT but these assets are not fully
utilized for research and content development by teachers and students.
Uribe and Marino (2006) surveyed 162 students at the School of
Dentistry, University of Valparaiso to give details of their utilization of
ICTs. All participants had access to a computer, and 96.4% used the
internet. The majority of students had home internet connections
(73.4%). The most frequently used internet sites on at least weekly basis
were: e-mail (92.2%), and search engines (88.3%).
One of the major studies on student’s use of online conversation
boards was conducted by Fine gold and Cooke (2006). Discussion boards
present an electronic forum that allow its participants to post a
memorandum that others can read and to which others can react and
enable communication along with members who can access the board at
any time anywhere. Their case study reviewed the attitudes and
experiences of 307 postgraduates and they analyzed over 3,123
messages. The study finds that presence of lecturers in online groups was
vital for students, although the majority of communication on the
discussion boards was student centered. Salako and Tiamiyu (2007)
surveyed the exercise of search engines for investigate by postgraduate
students of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Copies of 327 questionnaires
were analyzed and it was establish that most of the responding
postgraduate students were conscious of, and had become known with the
internet previous to the start of their postgraduate courses.
Availability and Problems Relating to the Accessibility of ICT… 41
Statement of the Problem
The present study aimed at exploring the availability and problems
relating to the accessibility of Information and Communication
Technologies (ICT’s) among university students.
Research Questions
1. What types of Information and Communication Technologies are
available at tertiary level for students?
2. What are the problems students are facing in accessing Information
and Communication Technologies at tertiary level?
Research Objectives
1. To find out the availability of Information and Communication
Technologies for university students.
2. To investigate the problems faced by university students in accessing
Information and Communication Technologies.
Methodology
It is descriptive research. The detail of the method is as:
Population
Population size was comprised of 980 students studying in the
department of social sciences at two public sector universities of
Islamabad.
Table 1
Students Population Size
Students Population Size
NUML
Islamic International
Total
IR
Education
IR
Education
Mass.Com
122
118
146
130
254
980
Table 1 describes the total student population size of the study. From the
university of NUML student population size was 450, Department of
International Relation consists of 122 students, Department of Education
Mahek Arshad, Quratul Ain Hina 42
consists of 118 students and Department of Mass Communication
consists of 210 students. From the University of Islamic students
population was 530, Department of International Relation consists of 146
students, Department of Education consists of 130 students, and
Department of Mass Communication consists of 254 students.
Sample
Stratified random sample of 294 (30%) students of two public sector
universities located at Islamabad were selected. Present study comprised
of population of 980 students so that by keeping in view the guiding
principles and suggestions provided by L.R. Gay researcher collected
30% of random sample from each stratum so the total sample size was
294. According to Gay if population size is 950 representative sample
size may be of 274 (Gay, 2000).
Table 2
Students Sample Size
Students Sample Size
NUML
Islamic International
Total
IR
Education
Mass.Com
IR
Education
Mass.Com
37
35
63
44
39
76
294
Table 2 describes the total student sample size of the study. From the
university of NUML student sample size was 135, Department of
International Relation consists of 37 students, Department of Education
consists of 35 students and Department of Mass Communication consists
of 63 students. From the University of Islamic students population was
159, Department of International Relation consists of 44 students,
Department of Education consists of 39 students, and Department of
Mass Communication consists of 76 students.
Research Instrument
Keeping in sight the nature of present research study researcher
developed research questionnaire by keeping in sight the standard
process of instrument development. The linked literature has been
reviewed by researcher broadly to develop instrument for the study. All
the questions were close-ended. In the present study questionnaire was
designed in Likert’s-point response format, which ranged from:
Availability and Problems Relating to the Accessibility of ICT… 43
Strongly disagree (1), Disagree (2), Neutral (3), Agree (4), Strongly
agree (5).
Pilot testing was carried out to settle on the reliability and validity of
research tools. The scale was based on two sub scales having 25 items in
total. Cronbach’s alpha reliability of questionnaire was .87. For data
collection the respondents were approached to the nature and needs of
the research. The respondents were guaranteed of the privacy of the
results and questionnaire was circulated through personal visits.
Procedure
The study was descriptive type in nature in which stratified sampling
technique were used. Data were collected through personal visits by
researcher to sampled universities of Islamabad. Approximately all the
participants completed the questionnaires in the presence of researcher.
Keeping in sight the nature and need of study the researcher used Likert
scale questionnaire. Collected data were analyzed according to the
objectives of the study in the company of SPSS 19.0 by applying
subsequent statistical test: Percentage analysis and Mean.
Data Analysis
Collected data were analyzed and tabulated according to objective of
the study. After completing data collection data were transferred to SPSS
19.0 for statistical analysis by applying statistical tests including
Percentage and Mean analysis.
Mahek Arshad, Quratul Ain Hina 44
Results
Table 3
Percentages of University Students regarding Availability of ICT
Availability of ICT
Statement
Strongly
Disagree
%
Disagree
%
Neutral
%
Agree
%
Strongly
Agree%
Broadband
21.7
18.6
12.9
41.0
5.8
Wifi
17.6
21.4
26.1
30.2
4.7
Intranet
14.6
23.7
22.0
34.9
4.7
Computers
18.6
33.9
25.8
19.7
2.0
Laptops
38.0
40.7
16.9
3.4
1.0
Printers
40.3
38.6
13.2
6.1
1.7
Lectures
31.2
43.7
18.0
6.8
.3
Multimedia
19.7
23.4
21.0
31.9
4.1
Scanners
23.1
26.4
20.0
27.8
2.7
Digital library
16.6
23.1
18.0
35.3
7.1
Trained staff
12.2
24.7
34.6
23.1
5.4
Photocopy
machine
48.3
14.5
10.2
21
6
Blended
classrooms
51.3
20.5
10.2
10
8
Video conference
rooms
53.1
10.9
14.1
10.9
10.9
Table No 3 describes the opinion of students regarding availability of
ICTs. Total numbers of respondents were 294. Statement 1 was that
university has provided Broad Band internet to students, as shown in
table 21.7% strongly disagree, 18.6% agree, 41% students were agree
and 5.8% were strongly agree upon this. Statement no 2 was about
availability of Wi-Fi network to students, results show that 30.2%
students were agreed, 4.7% were strongly agree that university has
provided Wi-Fi facility but on the other hand 17.6% strongly disagree
and 18.6% disagree on this. Statement 3 results revealed that 34.9%
students were agreed and 23.7% were disagreed that university has
provided intranet facility. In statement no 4 students seem to disagree
about availability of computers in sufficient number, 33.9% disagree
Availability and Problems Relating to the Accessibility of ICT… 45
with it and 18.6%% strongly disagree. Statement 5 inquired about
availability of laptops in sufficient amount for students, 40.7% students
disagree and 38% strongly disagree on this which shows that laptops are
not available in sufficient number for students. Statement no 6 inquired
about the availability of printers free of cost for students, 38.6% students
disagree and 40.3% strongly disagree. Statement 7 was about availability
of lectures for students in electronic form (DVDs, Cassettes and CD’s)
43.7% students disagree and 31.2% students strongly disagree on this.
Statement 8 was about availability of multimedia in classroom for
students, 19.7% strongly disagree and 23.4% disagree and 21% remain
neutral on this statement. Statement no 9 was that scanners are available
at university, 23.1% strongly disagree, 26.4% disagree, 27.8% agree and
2.7% strongly agree on this. Statement 10 was that university has its own
digital library, 35.3% agree, 7.1% strongly agree and 18% remain neutral
on this. Statement 11 inquired about the availability of trained technical
staff for students to resolve issues related with ICT equipment, 34.6%
students remain neutral, 24.7%disagree and 12.2% strongly disagree on
this. Statement 12 was that university has provided photo copy machine
to each department for students, as shown in table 48.3% strongly
disagree, 14.5% disagree, 21% students were agree and 6% were
strongly agree upon this. Statement no 13 was about availability and
arrangement of blended classroom to students, results show that 10%
students were agreed, 8% were strongly agree but on the other hand
51.3% strongly disagree and 20.5% disagree on this. Statement 14
inquired about availability of video conference rooms for students,
10.9% students disagree and 53.1% strongly disagree on this which
shows that video conference rooms are not available for students. Overall
result shows that majority of students were not agree that ICT facilities
are available at university level.
Mahek Arshad, Quratul Ain Hina 46
Table 4
Percentages of University Students regarding Problems Accessing in ICT
Problems in Accessing ICT
Statement
Strongly
Disagree %
Disagree
%
Neutral
%
Agree
%
Strongly
Agree %
Electricity
8.1
12.9
13.6
44.1
21.4
Phone lines
6.8
11.5
17.3
43.7
20.7
Lack of staff
6.4
12.9
29.5
35.3
15.9
Use internet
14.6
27.1
20.3
31.5
6.5
Access to digital
library
18.0
25.4
20.0
24.7
11.9
Conference room
25.8
31.5
17.3
23.1
2.3
Multimedia
14.6
24.7
28.5
27.1
5.1
Projector
14.9
18.0
22.0
39.3
5.8
Technical support
15.9
23.4
30.2
24.4
6.1
Computer
17.2
37.5
17.2
7.8
20.3
Skills
26.6
17.2
31.2
20.3
4.7
Table No 4 describes the opinion of students regarding problems in
accessing Information and Communication Technologies at tertiary level.
On statement 1, 44.1% respondents agree and 21.4% strongly agree that
due to unavailability of electricity it becomes difficult to access
computers. Statement no 2 was that due to weak phone lines it becomes
difficult to access internet, 43.7% agree on this and 20.7% strongly
agree. Statement no 3 was that due to lack of supporting staff students
face problems in using internet, computers, projectors and printers,
35.3% agree on this and 15.9% strongly agree. On statement no 4, 27.1%
disagree, 14.6% strongly disagree, 31.5% students agree and 6.5%
strongly agree that they can use internet and computer at university
whenever they want to use them. Statement no 5 was that students don’t
have open access to digital library in university where they can found
journals, E-books, articles and projects in electronic form, 20% remain
neutral on this, 24.7% agree and 11.9% strongly agree, 18% strongly
disagree and 25.4% disagree. Statement no 6 was that virtual-conference
room is easily accessible by students, 31.5% disagree and 25.8% strongly
disagree on this, 23.1% agree, 2.3% strongly agree. On statement 7 that
multimedia is not accessible for students 14.6% strongly disagree, 24.7%
disagree, 27.1% agree and 5.1% strongly agree. Statement no 8 was that
library is not linked to internet which makes easy access to online
Availability and Problems Relating to the Accessibility of ICT… 47
material, 22% remain neutral, 39.3% agree and 5.8% strongly agree on
this. Statement no 9 was that technical support is not easily accessible
when needed, 30.2% remain neutral, 23.4% disagree and 15.9% strongly
disagree. On statement 10 that due to less numbers of computers they are
not accessible for students, 17.2% strongly disagree, 37.5% disagree,
7.8% agree and 20.3% strongly agree. On statement no 11, 17.2%
disagree, 26.6% strongly disagree, 20.3% students agree and 4.7%
strongly agree that they have skills to handle software’s at their own.
Overall result shows that majority of students were agree that they are
facing problems in accessing ICT’s at university
Table 5
Mean of respondents score for the variable Gender
Table No 5 shows the mean score of male and female students on
availability of ICT and problems in accessing ICT. Mean of male
students on availability of ICT were 29.8 and female mean were 26.3.
Female mean score 26.7 were lower as compare to male mean score of
28.1 on problems in accessing ICT. Result shows that male students have
high mean score while female students exhibit lower score.
Findings and Discussion
Information and communication technology includes the new digital
technologies as well as the traditional media of communication of radio,
television and mobile (UNESCO Bangkok, 2003). Integration of ICT at
tertiary level is of particular importance to emergent countries because it
provides opportunity to education systems to leapfrog inbuilt limitations
and to obtain new resources and formulate inventive strategies. Students
opinion with the subscale availability of ICTs, the result shows that
majority of students were not agree for the fact that ICT tools such as
Wi-fi network, computers in sufficient number, laptops, free of cost
printers, lectures in electronic form, multimedia, scanners and trained
technical staff are available to make their learning more effective and
facilitative. So the score of disagree respondents were more than the
positive respondents score. Few respondents were agreed upon the fact
Gender
Male
Female
M
M
Availability of ICT
29.8
26.3
Problems in Accessing ICT
28.1
26.7
Mahek Arshad, Quratul Ain Hina 48
that university has provided broad band internet, Intranet and digital
library. Overall result shows that majority of students were not agree that
ICT facilities are available in university. Maharana, Biswal and Sahu
(2009) explored the use of ICTs by medical students. They found that
77% of respondents believe that ICT should be integrated in their
syllabus. Almost all of the respondents expressed the hope that there
would be a computer lab in their university. Of the 100 respondents in
128, responded that now a day’s education would not be effective
without the availability of ICT-based resources and services.
Findings from the study revealed that majority of students were
agree for the fact that they are facing problems in accessing information
and communication technology tools such as unavailability of electricity,
weak phone lines, lack of supporting staff, no access to virtual
conference room and problems in accessing online material at university.
From the finding researcher concluded that students are facing a lot of
problems regarding the accessibility of ICTs especially in making
assignments, presentations and doing work at time due to unavailability
of infrastructure related to ICT. Male university students have high mean
score on availability of ICT and problems in accessing ICT facilities,
while female students exhibit lower score. Beena (2012) found that male
students have a higher awareness of the use of Information and
Computer Technologies in education than female students.
Recommendations
1. It is recommended that computers, laptops, printers, multimedia,
lectures in electronic form and scanners may be provided to students
sufficiently at tertiary level and trained technical staff should be
available at university to resolve issues related with Information and
Communication Technology equipment for students.
2. It is suggested that university may provide ICT tools and make sure
that all students are utilizing information and communication
technology tools such as electronic bulletin board, computers for
blended learning and flipped classrooms. It is recommended that use
of computers, electronic bulletin board for students may be promoted
and encouraged to participate in blended and flipped classrooms.
3. It is recommended that problems in accessing ICTs tools may be
reduced for students by universities. Access to internet may be
improved for students so that they can enhance their knowledge by
using the educational literature, references, encyclopedia, collaborative
projects, databases and dictionaries.
Availability and Problems Relating to the Accessibility of ICT… 49
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Citation of this Article:
Arshad, M., & Hina, Q. (2017). Availability and problems relating to the
accessibility of information and communication technologies (ICT’S)
among university students. Pakistan Journal of Distance and Online
Learning, 3(1), 33-50.

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