Pakistan Journal of Distance & Online Learning
Volume: III, Issue: I, 2017
An Analysis of Perceptions of Female Students
Regarding the Promotion of Distance Mode Learning
in Pakistan
Ghulam Sughra
*
Abstract
In 21
th
Distance mode of learning plays significant role in the promotion
of education. By the help of distance mode of learning we educate those
who lives far away from us, through distance mode learning we educate
them. The key purpose of the current investigation was to examine the
perception of female students towards the promotion of distance mode
learning in Pakistan. The main objectives of the current research paper
were: (1) the perceptions of female students on the current practices of
distance mode learning in Pakistan. (2) The perceptions of female
students to suggest ways of promoting distance mode learning in
Pakistan. It was quantitative study. The research design which was used
for prevailing research paper was descriptive and survey type. The
universe of the current study were all students who enrolled in all
universities in Islamabad who provide distance mode of education. 270
Students were randomly selected and used stratified randomly techniques
was used in selection of sampling. A questionnaire was used as a
research instrument with five point Likert scale. Data were collected by
researcher personally. Data were analyzed by the help of SPSS (Version,
20). And the data were tabulated in the form of figures and tables.
Keywords: Perception, Promotion, Distance Mode Learning,
Analysis
*
PhD Scholar, Mohi-Ud-Din University Nerian Sharif AJK,
Email: sughrasarwar78@gmail.com
Ghulam Sughra 24
Introduction
It is the right of each and every person of this contemporary world to
educate them, how educate them, for this purpose different mean of
education is used and one of these is distance mode of education. By the
help of this means of education we provide them education into their
door steps to those how leaves far away from us. However because of
limited prospects, littler assets as well as improvements &tendencies, the
outdated as well as proper scheme demands for another to agreement it
suitably. Consequently, distance mode of learning developed to discourse
the problem as well as it was acknowledged as a substitute to the proper
system of education as well as authoritative, of its stretchy environment.
Adeeb, Rahmani & Safdar (2008) revealed that, distance mode education
seems to be eradicating sex dissimilarities as well as societal
discernment, mostly in emerging nations for example, Pakistan and other
emerging nations. Commonly it is perceived that, distance mode of
learning delivers broader entrance to each and every nevertheless of sex,
period as well as background and doctrine. Distance mode of learning
endorses chances of enduring learning by delivering 2
nd
chance to those
peoples, who missing afterward finishing definite level of education as
well as released out at some phase, (Hussain, 2005; Rashid, 2003). In of
21
st
century awareness about society, has developed is a sustainable basis
for conveying knowledge, specialized talents as well as approaches to
live & work within this competitive universe. So, it looks essential for
distance mode of institutes to confirm quality education. Rashid (2003)
discussed the diverse aspects which effect on quality of distance mode of
learning self-directed material, learner support facilities, instructor as
well as instructors’ preparation, broadcasting as well as ICT equipment,
students’ outline and requirements of socio-cultural as well as financial
situations of the state. But, the quality of education looks to be sprightly
interrelated with the quality of training. Therefore, in distance mode of
learning, the quality of teaching commonly be contingent upon trainers
as well as trainers’ teaching. According to Hussain (2008), stated that an
expert trainer abuses new approaches as well as methods for actual
raining provision for accomplishment of students as well as eventually in
programs in distance mode of education. Teaching in distance mode is a
skilled doing targeting at training to distance mode of students to attain
great marks. He further said that, a decent tutor improves educational co-
operation with students to talks with them teaching and learning related
difficulties as well as matters. Therefore, students finish preference as
well as educational happiness, the significant struggles of their teachers
as well as might be overemphasize to monitor them. Therefore, the
instructor is observed as one of the rudimentary mechanisms as well as
An Analysis of Perceptions of Female Students… 25
support of distance mode of learning system. So, each and every
struggles as well as undertakings for constructing a programs for distance
mode of learning, positive depend upon specialised abilities of teachers
serving for distance mode of students to study. The students of Distance
mode look to be single with their different prospective, logical
measurements, conceptual abilities as well as involvement of life. So
everyone have own perception about learning. However, diverse
examiners (Hussain, 2005; Merriam, 2001; & Rashid, 2000) presumed
that students of distance education to be grown ups, they are self-
structured, self-absorbed as well as self-directed to teaching as well as
learning. Grown ups were expected to be developed logically as well as
communally having their personal perception as well as involvement of
life as well as teaching and learning properly or casually. They were
plays dissimilar parts in the community. So, they want to be preserved as
grownups in instructional procedure. The tutors of distance mode must
be contemplate their individualities as well as requirements for emerging
a vigorous specialised as well as creative association with them. Why its
looks essential of an instructor to be well-resourced with firm specialized
abilities as well as capabilities termed adult teaching talents to support
adults study. Adult teaching abilities might be observed as a specialized
capabilities as well as consciences to support grownups study (Rachal,
2002). Adults teaching methodological abilities, as a word which
specifies, branch from the rudimentary codes of adult’s methodology, as
well as its expectations. According to Knowles (1970) stated the word
andragogy as well as proclaimed that “actually inventive teacher
thoroughly overwhelms that what he sees in his learners would study in
support of facilitating his learners to study for themselves that what they
need to study. Likewise, according to Van Gent (1996) encouraged for
choosing a suitable method to explain grownups as well as Zmeyov
(1998) observed that andragogy is an appropriate method which were
strong minded elementary actions for students as well as educators in
development, understanding, assessing as well as modifying adult
learning properly. Similarly, Bellamio (2006) stated that the important
remunerations of a seminar established by Malcolm Knowles’ according
to them andragogy facilitated Italian social source for professional
development as well as cultivating their encouragement inside their
companies. Like adults, the students of distance mode have their
inimitable personalities as well as learning elegances. So, the effective
teacher continuously discourses their particular individualities as well as
learning classes in instructional procedure in distance education. Adults
study by the help of envelopment as well as practical exercise with some
help through their teachers. According to Kearsley (1996) revealed that
the word andragogy as well as specified that teaching for adults
Ghulam Sughra 26
requirements to emphasis further on procedure as well as fewer on the
contented creatures killed. So, dissimilar systems as well as approaches,
which contain adults in teaching and learning procedure are supposed to
be valuable as well as meaningfully real. These approaches laterally with
others contain case studies, enact, imitations, as well as formulating
selections. Teacher as well as mature instructor thus shoulders a
character of guide as well as organiser to support them study. It is
essential for an instructor to see how to support distance students.
According to O’Rourke (2003) recognised three fundamental ability sets
compulsory for real teaching in Open as well as Distance Learning.
These sets contain theoretical, helpful as well as administrative helps of
an instructor. Also, the learning directed by Suanmali (1981)
recommended roughly services for mature teacher. A teacher might be
accomplished of assembly students elf-governing. For this reason he
must support through them:
(i) Properly the use of learning sources,
(ii) describing the learning requirements,
(iii) compelling accountability for their education,
(iv) establishing for their personal knowledge,
Adopting students’ conclusion creating as well as selections,
boosting them for decision as well as incorporation, simplifying them in
affectation difficult as well as conclusion its answer, as long as helpful
to learning situation, as well as developing empirical approaches.
According to Bragar &Johnson (1993) acknowledged five philosophies
of adult learning is a alteration as well as it earnings time to happen; it
shadows a incessant sequence of achievement as well as consideration
of the students current learning takings place in speaking
students’matters; which is develops meaningfully actual over
communicating methods; as well as it is considerably actual in helpful
as well as inexpensive learning situations. According to Morland (2003)
revealed that trade instructors, tutors, as well as instructional designers
desired to comprehend the subtleties of andragogical model as well as
values of adult teaching and learning.
According to Nelson (2005) publicised that five African American
women endowed themselves uniform with the absence of out-dated
learning situations or settings. Therefore it is decided that women were
self-orientated as well as sustained according to the Malcolm Knowles'
concept of andragogy. According to Gross (2006) reflected that students
were involved to abuse andragogy in their innovative researches for the
intention of societal learning as well as growth. According to Henschke
(2006), stated that, the main aspect persuasive students as well as higher
education organisations to emphasis further on all-time learning. The
An Analysis of Perceptions of Female Students… 27
students of higher education organisations are grownups as well as
objective directed. Which creates the conscious of their learning as well
as achievement. Likewise, So, Wie (2003) reflected that andragogical
philosophies define students’ accomplishment as well as excellence of
adult education. According to Akande & Jegede (2004), andragogical
approaches to increase adult ICT learning services in Pakistan. The
involvement discovered that adults contributed vigorously as well as
these approaches were expressively suitable for endorsing ICT learning
amongst adults. Which were also used in other parts very well.
According to Isenberg (2005, 2007) established as well as confirmed a
'Virtual Health Coach' Internet program-based on andragogical
philosophies interrelated with Internet technology. The skill was
relatively positive as applicants described their gratification in
distributing with their health problems. These skills were used
effectively to support entities in some catastrophic as well as other
difficult circumstances in useful life. Similarly, according to the
research of Toman (2005) create the andragogical method more
operative than those containing of one-way evidence stream in
catastrophe circumstances like simple wildfire etc.
Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the current study were:
1. To analyze the perceptions of female students on the current
practices of distance mode learning in Pakistan.
2. To suggest ways of promoting distance mode learning in Pakistan.
Research Questions of the Study
The research questions of the study were:
1. To what extent the perceptions of female students support the
current practices of distance mode learning in Pakistan?
Research Methodology
It was quantitative study. The research design which was used for
prevailing research paper was descriptive and survey type. The universe
of the current study were all students who enrolled in all universities in
Islamabad who provide distance mode of education. 270 Students were
randomly selected and used stratified randomly techniques was used in
selection of sampling. A questionnaire was used as a research instrument
with five point Likert scale. Data were collected by researcher
Ghulam Sughra 28
personally. Data were analyzed by the help of SPSS (Version, 20). And
the data were tabulated in the form of figures and tables.
Analysis and Interpretation
Table 1
Views of female students regarding distance mode learning
S. No Percentage Frequency Mean
Score
SA22.2 60
A 56.3 152
N18.5 50 1.70
DA2.7 06
SDA 0.7 02
Total 100 270
According to table no.01, presented that 22.2% of female students
were strongly agree, 56.3% of female students were agree, 18.5% of
female students were neutral, 2.7% of female students were disagree,
while .7% of female students were strongly disagree towards the
statement, views of female students regarding distance mode of learning.
And its mean score was 1.70 which was positive. So, it is concluded that
56.6% of female students were agree while 2.7% of female students were
disagree towards the statement, views of female students regarding
distance mode of learning.
Table 2
Suggest ways promoting distance mode learning
S. No Percentage Frequency Mean
Score
SA 28.1 76
A 45.6 123
N 17.8 48 2.02
DA 7.0 19
SDA 1.5 04
Total 100 270
Table no.01, tabulated that 28.1% of female students were strongly
agree, 45.6% of female students were agree, 17.8% of female students
An Analysis of Perceptions of Female Students… 29
were neutral, 7.0% of female students were disagree, while 1.5% of
female students were strongly disagree towards the statement, Suggest
ways promoting distance mode learning. And its mean score was 2.02
which was positive. So, it is concluded that 25.6% of female students
were agree while 7.0% of female students were disagree towards the
statement, Suggest ways promoting distance mode learning.
Table 3
Views of students regarding on the practices of distance mode learning
S. No Percentage Frequency Mean
Score
SA 30.0 81
A 43.3117
N 21.5 582.08
DA 4.4 12
SDA 0.702
Total 100 270
Tabulated table no.03, reflected that 30.0% of female students were
strongly agree, 43.3% of female students were agree, 21.5% of female
students were neutral, 4.4% of female students were disagree, while
0.7% of female students were strongly disagree towards the statement,
Views of students regarding on the practices of distance mode learning.
And its mean score was 2.08 which was positive. So, it is concluded that
43.3% of female students were agree while 4.4% of female students were
disagree towards the statement, Views of students regarding on the
practices of distance mode learning.
Findings of the Study
The main finding of the study were drawn after the analysis and
interpretation, these findings were:
1. So, it is concluded that 56.6% of female students were agree while 2.7%
of female students were disagree towards the statement, views of female
students regarding distance mode of learning. (Table no.01).
2. 25.6% of female students were agree while 7.0% of female students
were disagree towards the statement, Suggest ways promoting
distance mode learning. (Table no.02)
3. it is concluded that 43.3% of female students were agree while 4.4% of
female students were disagree towards the statement, Views of students
regarding on the practices of distance mode learning. (Table no.03)
Ghulam Sughra 30
Conclusion
On the basis of analysis and findings we can concluded that:
1. Majority of the female students were agree towards the statements that
the current practices of distance mode of learning.
2. Most of the female students were agree about the statement about the
views of female students regarding to promoting of distance mode of
learning.
Discussion
In 21th century Distance mode of learning play very important roles
in character building of any personality. Distance mode of learning
provide every types of opportunity to them to equip themselves in every
aspect of life. Therefore, the main concern of this research paper was to
investigate the perceptions of female students regarding the promotion of
distance mode learning in Pakistan as well as their analysis. The main
objectives of the current study were: (1) the perceptions of female
students on the current practices of distance mode learning in Pakistan.
(2) The perceptions of female students to suggest ways of promoting
distance mode learning in Pakistan. The same results were founded on
other studies for example, (Akande & Jegede, 2004) as well as (Hussain,
2005), which were founded the same result of these studies and so on.
Recommendation
1. The scholar suggested that appropriate short-term as well as long-
term training of for tutors in distance mode education may be
structured to prepare them with practical abilities of using ICT in
distance education.
2. Tutors’ handbook can be make for fresh registered tutors in Distance
Education institutions.
3. A majority of researches can be steered to estimate
students’consideration on andragogical abilities of their tutors as
well as discover their training requirements.
An Analysis of Perceptions of Female Students… 31
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Citation of this Article:
Sughra, G. (2017). An Analysis of perceptions of female students
regarding the promotion of distance mode learning in Pakistan: Analysis.
Pakistan Journal of Distance and Online Learning, 3(1), 23-32.

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