Pakistan Journal of Distance & Online Learning
Volume: III, Issue: I, 2017
Factors Affecting Student’s Attitude towards
Mobile Advertising
Adnan Farooq
The study has been conducted to analyze of the students attitude towards
mobile phones. 300 students from different universities and colleges of
Islamabad / Rawalpindi were taken. They were of various age groups,
academic level, gender and the variables measured are; information,
entertainment, irritation and credibility. There were 70% males and 30%
female students. According to age there were 29% in the range of 16-20
years; 46% were in the range 21-25; 17% were in the range 25-30 and
9% beyond 30. According to education about 11% are Intermediate, 51%
Graduation, 36% Masters and 1 % students are of MS/M-Phil level. The
data compiled on the basis of questionnaire shows that almost 53 %
students enjoy the SMS and take it as entertainment, 51% receive only
specific information as and when required basis. 39% feel irritation by
receiving any SMS on their mobiles phones, whereas, 40% even don’t
bother to read the full text message, received on their mobiles. Overall
59.7% like mobile advertising. It can be concluded that the students
generally have positive attitude towards mobile advertising.
Keywords: Attitudes, SMS Advertising, Information, entertainment,
Irritation & Credibility
Adnan Farooq 62
Mobile Advertising offers great opportunities for businesses.
Marketing activities supported by mobile devices allow companies to
directly communicate with their consumers without time or location
barriers. If marketers want to use this communication channels that
mobile media provide in an efficient way, they need to understand how
mobile consumers perceive and evaluate mobile devices as a source of
In everyday life, devices and systems based on mobile technologies
have become a commonplace in most developed countries
(Balasubramanian, Peterson & Jarvenpaa, 2002). The growth of mobile
advertising has opened a new area for research. For instance, given its
limited textual presentation, will this new medium have the same effect
as other media? What do consumers think about SMS-based
advertisements? What mechanisms would be more effective for
advertising? The rising popularity of SMS has created a new channel for
advertising, called mobile advertising. Advertisement are turned into as
short textual messages and sent to mobile phones.
According to Baber, (2008) mobile web and mobile advertising
audience in Pakistan are maturing and growing day by day. This is
impressive, given the difficult economic conditions and high taxation
policies in Pakistan. A mobile advertising company, and shows that the
number of impressions (views of advertisement) from Pakistan took an
80% jump in September, 2008 and in the previous month, the
impressions showed 300% growth. Pakistanis have always been big time
fan of mobile games, ring tones and other fun downloads a trend
consistent with the mobile users worldwide. Now the public is moving
from WAP sites to surfing the web and portals on mobiles. As long as
the marketers follow an ethics guideline and provide relevant ads, the
mobile advertising will take off and become mainstream. Here is a
summary of the some trends which point to growth of mobile
91 million user base
Near 100,000 mobile data users (estimate)
Good EDGE services (in terms of options and coverage) by mobile
More wireless broadband services - such as Zong USB Internet
Growth of smart phones as a percentage of overall handsets
Preference to browse web on the phone
Factors Affecting Student’s Attitude towards Mobile Advertising 63
Acceptance of mobile ads - as shown by ad impressions
Emergence of local mobile ad players such as mKhoj (a web based
Many different factors that affect consumers’ attitudes towards
advertising have been identified in the prior studies. However, it is
assumed that only a limited number of these factors can be applied to
explain the consumers’ attitudes toward advertising. Thus, it is necessary
to construct a framework, which explains consumers’ attitudes toward
mobile advertising and its relationship with behavioral intention. Based
on the theories of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975),
Technology Acceptance Theory (Davis, 1989), and theory of Planned
Behavior framework of factors affecting consumers’ attitudes toward
mobile advertising) is proposed, which consists of three main factors:
(1) message characteristics, (2) technology characteristics, and (3)
demographic characteristics, this study will answer following research
(i) How do consumers (student) perceive mobile advertising?
(ii) What are the most important factors affecting attitudes towards
mobile advertising?
Following are the some important characteristics which describe the
features of various advertising media and their contents.
Attitude toward the message
Public Opinion, attitudes, perspectives, and preferences of a
population toward events, circumstances, and issues of mutual
interest. It is characteristically measured by the sample survey
or public opinion poll.
Behavioral Sciences, fields of study that is primarily concerned with
the understanding and control of behavior, especially those types of
human behavior that develop out of interpersonal relations.
Entertainment is a crucial factor for mobile marketing. It is essential
that the message is short and funny, and thus immediately captures
consumers’ attention. Entertainment may increase customer loyalty
and add value for the customer. As most people have a natural
playfulness, providing games and prizes via text messaging (SMS)
yields high participation.
Adnan Farooq 64
Information is gathering, manipulating and organizing of data in a
way that adds to the knowledge of the receiver. In other words, it is
the context in which data is taken. Information delivered to customer
by mobile sms also needs to show qualitative features like accuracy,
timeliness, and usefulness for the consumer.
In humans, it is a form of suffering, often with anger about the
suffering; in particular, if applicable, anger at the person who caused
it. Mobile advertising may provide a collection of information that
confuses the recipient and can be disturbing with information.
Consumers may feel confused about them and react negatively.
Advertising Define credibility as “consumers’ perception of the truth
and believability of advertising. Degree to which a communicator or
communication is believed by the recipient. Credibility is
particularly important when the message to be conveyed varies
substantially from the recipient's current beliefs or attitudes.
The mobile phone is a very personal device that allows an individual
to be accessed virtually any time and anywhere, mobile advertising must
be more personalized and may take different forms. Based on different
strategic applications, wireless marketing can be either permission-based,
incentive based, or location-based.
Public attitudes towards advertising have been a focus of attention
for a long time. Although some earlier literature reported positive
attitudes toward advertising, most of the more recent researchers have
found that consumers generally have negative attitudes toward ads. At
the same time, however, Internet advertising seems to generate positive
consumer attitudes. This is because Internet advertising is often thought
to be informative and entertaining. Given the difference between
consumer responses to general advertising and to advertising over the
Internet, it is unclear how consumers feel about advertising messages on
their mobile phones and how their attitudes affect their behavior.
Two sets of hypotheses can be developed from the framework:
Hypothesis 1: Consumer perceived entertainment, informativeness,
irritation, and credibility of mobile advertisement affect
the attitude toward mobile advertising.
Hypothesis 2: The mobile advertising affects the relevant demographic
Factors Affecting Student’s Attitude towards Mobile Advertising 65
Literature Review
Kotler (2003) defines advertising as “any paid form of non-personal
presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified
sponsor”. Public attitudes towards advertising have been a major issue in
advertising research for a long time.
Bauer & Greyser, (1968); Gallup, (1959) suggested public’s positive
attitudes toward advertising, recent studies (Bracket & Carr, 2001;
Ducoffe, 1996; Schlosser, Shavitt, & Kanfer, 1999) recommended that
consumers generally have negative attitudes towards advertising. Given
the clear decline in positive consumer responses to advertising, it is unclear
how consumers perceive advertising messages on their mobile phones,
what would make consumers perceive mobile advertising differently, and
how their attitudes affect their behaviors. Accordingly, it is worthwhile to
explore whether consumers’ attitudes towards mobile advertising attitudes
will lead to positive or negative behavioral intentions (i.e., click/call
through mobile advertising messages or ignore it).
There has been little study about attitudes toward mobile advertising,
many empirical studies of attitudes toward mobile advertising (Tsang et
al., 2004; Okazaki, 2004; Leppäniemi et al., 2005) borrowed the factors
from Internet advertising to predict customers’ attitudes towards mobile
advertising. Tsang & Liang (2004).Mobile advertising shares many
features with Internet advertising. Both are emerging media used to
deliver digital texts, images and voices with interactive, immediate,
personalized, and responsive capabilities.
This technology system allows increased mobility and extended
services even to remote areas. Due to wireless communication system,
mobile phone users are able to access their e-mails, search, order and buy
products and services from everywhere without computers (Yen & Chou,
2000; Aungst & Wilson, 2005). Besides the Internet and personal
computers, the mobile phone is the key to marketers because it is
extremely popular and offers people the opportunity of mobility now.
Through the introduction of data services, Short Message Services
(SMS), Multimedia Message Service (MMS), Mobile Internet, etc., the
mobile phone is rapidly becoming a viable commercial marketing
channel. Even though companies are investing heavily in mobile
commerce and mobile marketing, the nature and implications of this
Adnan Farooq 66
channel have yet to be fully understood and studies need to be performed
to gain an insight into how to utilize it best Bauer et al., (2005).
According to Becker, (2005) mobile marketing adoption and
acceptance is on the rise in these days, but marketers would have little
ability to consistently generate profits without a clear understanding of
the elements driving consumer acceptance. Yuan and Cheng (2004)
emphasize that mobile marketing is getting increasingly popular because
mobile phone is a personal device used in marketing.
Scharl et al., (2005) defined mobile marketing as using a wireless
medium to provide consumers with time and location-sensitive,
personalized information that promotes products, services and ideas,
thereby benefiting all stakeholders. Shortly, mobile marketing refers to
marketing activities and programs performed via mobile phone in mobile
commerce. Mobile commerce driven by wireless communication
technology is also generating interest from marketers (Aungst & Wilson,
2005). Therefore, the penetration of this new technology has suggested
changes in advertising, retailing and shopping in marketing and
companies wishing to make business in mobile markets should be ready
for mobile marketing and mobile commerce.
Siau et al., (2001) defined mobile commerce as a new type of e-
commerce transaction conducted through mobile devices using wireless
telecommunication networks and other wired e-commerce technologies.
(Sadeh, 2002) explained the forces behind the emergence of mobile
commerce are as (1) creation of mobile devices, (2) convergence of mobile
telecommunication networks and Internet, (3) transition to 3G (Third
Generation Mobile System), and (4) the emergence of broad set of highly
personalized location applications and services. Especially, the topic of
advertising via mobile devices is of major interest. It addresses consumers
with individualized advertising messages via mobile devices. The results
will indicate that advertising value and advertising message content have the
largest impact on attitude toward advertising via mobile devices.
Materials and Methods
The respondents were students of universities and colleges of
Islamabad/Rawalpindi. Total 350 questionnaires were distributed. Self-
administered, close end questionnaires were distributed among the
Factors Affecting Student’s Attitude towards Mobile Advertising 67
respondents. This questionnaire was divided into seven parts, first part
was related to entertainment, informativness, irritation, credibility,
attitude, intention and behavior, related to students respondents including
age, gender and education and the scale used to measure the responses
were nominal. Using 5-point Likert scale anchored by “Strongly Agree
(1)”, “Agree (2)”, “Uncertain (3)”, “Disagree (4)” and “Strongly
Disagree (5)”.The questionnaire was distributed among three hindered
and fifty respondents randomly and it took twenty-five days to get them
filled. Out of total 350 distributed questionnaires, only 300 were
completed in all respects and were included for analysis. Before giving,
the questionnaires all the questions were explained to the respondents, so
that they can understand and fill the questionnaires easily. Before getting
the questionnaire filled it was briefly introduced to every respondent. In
order to perform analysis, descriptive statistics were done and for this
purpose SPSS was used. The content of the questionnaire has been
adapted from Tsang et al, (2004), for use to explore the view of students’
attitude towards mobile advertising.
The attitude data were first tested for reliability using Cronbach’s
alpha. The results are shown in Table 1. According to Hair (1998), most
research method guides treat a value higher than 0.7 as acceptable. The
values in the Table-1 is 0.768 which indicates that the data collected
from the survey are reliable and suitable for further analysis
Table 1
Reliability of data
Cronbach's Alpha
Cronbach's Alpha Based on
Standardized Items
No of Items
The frequency distribution of different variables is given in Table 2.
Adnan Farooq 68
Table 2
Frequency distribution of variables
Level of Agreement (%)
I feel that receiving mobile
advertisements is enjoyable and
I feel that receiving mobile
advertisements is pleasant.
I feel that mobile advertising is a
good source for timely
Mobile advertisements provide
the information I need.
I feel that mobile advertising is
I feel that mobile advertisements
are almost everywhere.
Contents in mobile
advertisements are often
I use mobile advertising as a
reference for purchasing.
I trust mobile advertisements.
Factors Affecting Student’s Attitude towards Mobile Advertising 69
Level of Agreement%
Overall, I like mobile
I am interested in receiving
mobile advertisement
I read almost all the
advertisement messages I
receive on my mobile.
I usually study most of the
text covered in the body of
advertisement messages.
The Table 2 indicates that on the basis of questionnaire which shows
that almost 53 % students enjoy the SMS and take it as entertainment,
51% receive only specific information as and when required basis. 39%
feel irritation by receiving any SMS on their mobiles phones, whereas,
40% even don’t bother to read the full text message, received on their
mobiles. Overall 59.7% like mobile advertising. It can be concluded that
the students generally have positive attitude towards mobile advertising.
The correlation matrix for different variables is given in Table 3.
Adnan Farooq 70
Factors Affecting Student’s Attitude towards Mobile Advertising 71
The correlation analysis given in Table 3 indicates that the
correlation between Ent1 & Ent2 = 0.588 and is highly significant and
indicates they are very highly correlated, similarly the correlation
between Ent2 & Attitude =0.456 which is highly significant and
indicates correlation. Ent2 & Irr3 =-0.28 shows negative correlation with
each other. Info1 & Attitude=0.381 is highly significant and indicates
they are highly correlated and similarly Info1 & Irr1=-.078 shows the
negative correlation. Info2 & Attitude=0.488 is highly significant and
indicates they are highly correlated and Info2 & Irr1=-0.109 shows the
negative correlation. Similarly Irr1 & Irr3 =0.380 are highly significantly
correlated and Irr1 & Attitude=0-.021 show the strongly negatively
correlated with each others. Irr2 & Irr3=0.249 is highly significantly
correlated whereas Irr2 & Beh1 = -0.068 having negatively correlated.
Irr3 & Beh2 =0.177 are highly significantly correlated whereas Irr3 &
Cred1=-0.011 are negatively correlated. Cred1 & Cred2=0.499 whereas
Cred1 & Beh1=0.219 both are highly significant and correlated with
each other. Cred2 & Attitude = 0.416 and Cred2 & Beh1=0.299 both
are significantly correlated. Attitude, Intention and Behavior are
significantly highly correlated with each.
Conclusion & Recommendations
This results shows that the entertainment was the most significant
factors affecting students attitudes, followed by credibility and
irritation. Attitude is positively highly correlated to the intention to
receive mobile ads. Intention is affected by the incentive. The
respondents were more willing to accept incentive based mobile
advertisement. Finally, intention broadly affected that how and when
the respondents read the message or simply ignored it. Generally it is
clear that mobile advertising is going to be the future trend in
Pakistan. So, it is concluded that the students generally have positive
attitude towards mobile advertising, which expresses correlation
among the students attitudes and behavior. Furthermore, this study
also provides executive inference and offers suggestions for mobile
advertisers and open new door for advertisement. Hence, advertising
companies and different mobiles companies are advised to carefully
design their mobile advertising messages and also design their mobile
advertising campaigns and specially target groups carefully.
Adnan Farooq 72
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Citation of this Article:
Farooq, A. (2017). Factors affecting student’s attitude towards mobile
advertising. Pakistan Journal of Distance and Online Learning, 3(1), 61-74.


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