Quality of Teacher Education
Program of Distance Mode
Naveed Sultana
*
Munazza Ambreen
**
Muhammad Tanveer Afzal
***
Abstract
Education is considered the best investment for national development
through the development of human. For this development formal and
distance education systems are contributing equally. In Pakistan Allama
Iqbal Open University (AIOU) is playing significant role to provide the
education facilities at large scale for all levels through distance mode.
Particularly teacher education program of AIOU is the largest one to
offer the educational opportunities to the teachers of all levels. Currently
this study was intended to explore the quality of teacher prepared by
AIOU. While focusing the quality indicators related to teacher education
program these objectives were addressed. (1) To examine the quality of
different components of teachers education offered by AIOU. (2) To
examine the significant role of AIOU in providing teacher education (3)
to explore the factors affecting the quality of teacher education program
of AIOU (4) to give suggestions for improving the quality of teacher
education program. This was descriptive study, sample of study
comprised on 200 students and 50 tutors of M.Ed/M.A education. For
data collection questionnaire on three point scale were developed and
administered among the sample. Through percentage data was analyzed.
Majority of the respondents opinioned that quality of curriculum,
delivery mechanism, evaluation system and students support services
*
Associate Professor, Secondary Teacher Education Department, Allama
Iqbal Open University, Islamabad.
**
Assistant Professor, Secondary Teacher Education Department, Allama
Iqbal Open University, Islamabad.
***
Assistant Professor, Secondary Teacher Education Department, Allama
Iqbal Open University, Islamabad.
Pakistan Journal of Distance & Online Learning [Vol. II, Issue II, 2016] 18
was not satisfactory. Hence workshop component is effective for
enhancing the knowledge and professional skills of students.
Correspondence mechanism of university is not effective. On the basis of
the findings, revision of courses, strengthen the students support service
while addressing their program related queries, improving assessment
system and feedback of tutors on assignments may be ensured.
Keywords: Formal Education, Distance Mode, Teacher Education,
quality Indicators
Introduction
Education takes a leading role for developing the humans’ capacity
through developing promoting their academic and professional
knowledge, skills, attitude and behavior. Throughout the world schools,
colleges, training centers and universities of public private sector play
the role to provide all types of educational and training programs.
Therefore the people who do not have the opportunities to get formal
education and training at any level due to their limited resources or
personal constraints. For them distance and non formal education
provides a second chance to get their education. Across the world it is
acknowledged that distance education mode is complementing the formal
system of education. Distance education can be more significant and
effective in terms of self-study and using technologies as methodology
for instructional tasks and interaction among teachers and students.
According to Moore (2003) “Distance education is planned learning
that normally occurs in a different place from teaching and as a result
requires special techniques of course design, special instructional
techniques, special methods of communication by electronic and other
technology, as well as special organizational and administrative
arrangements”.
The California Distance Learning Projects definition is: "Distance
Learning (DL) is an instructional delivery system which contacts learners
with educational resources. DL provides educational access to learners
not enrolled in educational institutions and can augment the learning
opportunities of current students. The implementation of DL is a process
which uses available resources and will evolve to incorporate emerging
technologies." (http://www.educationworld.com).
The United States Distance Learning Association defines distance
education as: "The acquisition of knowledge and skills through mediated
Quality of Teacher Education Program of Distance Mode 19
information and instruction, encompassing all technologies and other
forms of learning at a distance." (www.usdla.org).
While focusing all these concepts of distance education it can be
summarized as:
In distance education teachers and students physically are at
distance.
Technology (Electronic or non electronic) bridges up the interaction
and instructional gap.
Second chance of education for updating knowledge and personal
skills is given to adult learners who have limited resources, time,
money, family and personal constraints, long distance, physical
disability etc.
Overall the success of distance mode relies on appropriate planning
and wisely implementation or execution of programs and this success not
only is responsibility of administration of institution but all faculty
members supporting staff, facilitators and students will have to do
consistent and integrated efforts. These efforts will ensure the success
and quality of distance education (www.uiidaho.edu).
According to Frydenberg (2002) stakeholders, students, evaluators,
institutions and governments mostly provide the feedback about the
quality of distance education.
As teacher education program of AIOU is offered at large scale so
the question arises what is the quality of this program. Either it is
fulfilling the quality measures of teacher education. For answering these
questions this study was conducted to examine the quality of teacher
education programs. In this regards few objectives were formulated.
Objectives of the Study
While focusing the quality indicators and research questions these
objectives were formulated:
1. To examine the quality of different components of teachers
education program offered by AIOU.
2. To examine the significant role of AIOU in providing teacher
education
3. To explore the factors affecting the quality of teacher education
program of AIOU. (4) To give suggestions for improving the quality
of teacher education program.
Pakistan Journal of Distance & Online Learning [Vol. II, Issue II, 2016] 20
Review of Literature
During the last many years noticeable promotion has been done in
distance education throughout the Asia. Here are at least ten mega
universities with having large member of distance learners in world are
working. As Asia is considered main provider of distance education
accordingly stakeholders of national and international communities are
too much concerned about the quality of distance education.
While focusing the quality concerns of stakeholders all distance
education universities are making efforts to monitor and improve quality
of education. For this purpose all distance education universities are
adopting quality assurance system. In Asian countries accreditation,
academic audits, performance based funding and performance reporting
approaches are being used in distance education mode (http:
www.pandora-asia.org)
Pakistan is also included in the list of those counties of Asia and
world where illiteracy rate is very high. It is a developing country with
having large number of population among this large number contribution
of educated and literate people is less than many other developing
countries of Asia such as Sri Lanka, India, Bangladesh (UNESCO,
2009). For increasing the literacy rate and providing the educational
facilities to the masses formal and distance education systems are
supporting each other. Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) is the
foremost institute of distance education mode to provide the educational
opportunities to all.
Pakistan is developing country with having 200 million people
among this huge population contribution of educated and literate people
is very low. It has the highest illiteracy rate and the second largest out of
school population in the world
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Pakistan#cite_ref-10). For
fulfilling the educational needs of people at large scale formal system of
education is not sufficient. To complement the formal system efforts has
been made to promote the distance and non-formal education in Pakistan.
In this regards Allama Iqbal Open University is leading institution of
distance mode which is providing the education to 1.3 million people
from secondary school certificate to Ph.D level. Accordingly it is
offering educational programs for different levels starting from basic
literacy programs to Ph.D programs. Among these programs teacher
education program is the largest one in terms of courses and number of
students. ( http://www.aiou.edu.pk).
Quality of Teacher Education Program of Distance Mode 21
Before going on the quality of teacher education of AIOU, question
arises. What is teacher education and why it is significant for society.
Teacher play important role in the entire system of education. It is
truly said that no system of education is above the standard of its
teachers. They have significant role for developing the system of
education. Future of the nation is in the hands of teachers they can affect
the life of their pupils through their better personal, social and
professional development. For valuing the quality of education teachers
play important role and quality of education directly links with quality of
teachers and for producing the quality teachers, effective teacher
education programs are required. For this purpose master of teacher
education program intends to provide the chance of academic and
professional development to teachers.
Aggarwal (2004) defines that teacher education is that knowledge,
skill and ability which is relevant to the life of teacher as a teacher.
According to national education commission (1959) following
teacher education were recommended:
To train the trainers academically sound in their subjects.
To give them training about pedagogical skills related to their
subjects.
To enable them for understanding the psychology of children.
To increase the professional commitment and honor among the
teachers.
As education for any group of people is considered the best
investment for national development through the development of human.
For ensuring this development formal and distance education systems are
contributing equally. In Pakistan Allam Iqbal Open University is playing
significant role to provide the education facilities at large scale for all
levels through distance mode. Teacher Education Program is the largest
one program of AIOU. This program intends to prepare planners,
managers, teachers, counselor and researchers in the field of education.
This program comprises compulsory and elective courses related to field
teacher education. For making the teacher education program compatible
with other teacher training institutions in Pakistan. AIOU is also offering
the pre-service and in-service teacher education programs while focusing
the same criteria, professional standards and rules recommended by
Higher Education Commission Pakistan. Hence from the last few years
many institutional higher education programs of distance mode has
gained serious attention by other institutions, stakeholders, researchers,
policy makers and scholars. Mainly stakeholders demand the quality
Pakistan Journal of Distance & Online Learning [Vol. II, Issue II, 2016] 22
assurance in distance education. For addressing this demand
administration and academic faculty make efforts to incorporate the
quality issues through which distance education can be improved and
modified.
According to Harman (2000) higher education institutions adopt the
procedure of quality assurance through which performance of intuitions
is monitor systematically. It also ensures the quality of outputs and
improvements. Overall quality assurance procedure helps the institutions,
students, staff and stakeholder to monitor performance against
objectives.
Further through different studies quality of distance education mode
has been examined such as Bulewati & Zuhairi (2007) analyzed the
quality of management system which takes place for developing and
implementing the institutional strategies and policies related to
improvement of programs of distance education.
Nugrahem et. al. (2013) viewed the perception of learners about the
quality of distance education system. Daugherty and Barbara (1998) also
examined the perceptions of faculty members and students about the
quality of web based instruction in distance mode of education.
Cashion and Palmieri (2002) also analyzed the quality of online
learning while focusing the quality of distance education mode its
different components were examined.
Overall quality assurance for any program concentrates on those
administrative and procedural activities which ensure the quality of
system in the light of its objectives and standards. Quality assurance is a
monitoring and feedback which is done systematically. Though it
measures the quality of outputs or products but quality of any output or
product or service is determined by the users or employers
(https://en.wikipedia.org).
Jung (2011) developed ten categories model which identified
different components related to quality of distance learning: faculty
support students support, information and publicity, quality assurance,
material development, delivery mechanism, interaction process among
faculty, students and management, institutional infrastructure and
credibility. On the basis of these dimensions existing study was
conducted. Over all for evaluating the quality of M.Ed Program of
distance mode, self-instructional print material, delivery mechanism
students support service, workshop, tutorials, evaluation system,
educational facilities infrastructure and credibility of institution were
focused during the analysis of program.
Quality of Teacher Education Program of Distance Mode 23
M.Ed (Teacher Education Program) of AIOU
In 1974 AIOU was established to provide the educational
opportunities to the people at their doorstep. It also helps those workers
who do not leave their work, job but want to improve their qualification
and professional skills. AIOU has opened the new venues for the adult
learners in professional, scientific and technical fields. At the same time
as focusing the continuing education of professionals AIOU is also
offering teacher education programs from primary school teaching to
Ph.D program in teacher education. Hence during this study M.Ed
teacher education program was focused for examining its quality and
credibility. This program comprised on following components:
Self-Instructional Material
As mostly students’ learning relies on this material and the quality of
M.Ed program depends upon the quality of material. Self-instructional
print material of M.Ed program is developed by faculty members with
collaboration of subject exerts while following the criteria and standards
of distance mode. This material is sent to the enrolled students of M.Ed
program. Overall this material helps the students for their self study and
preparation of assignments and exam. Existing study was intended to
examine the quality of this material as it is linchpin of distance mode.
Teaching Methodology
More or less curriculum of M.Ed program is same in formal and
distance mode but process of teaching methodology creates the
difference between face to face and distance mode of interaction. In
distance mode technologies (electronic or, non electronic, audio, video or
print) are used for teaching learning process.
Assignments
Assignments are kind of formative assessment of students during
M.Ed program. Students prepare two assignments for each course with
the help of self-instructional print material. As per schedule students
submit their assignments to their assigned tutors. Tutors mark these
assignments and return back to the students with their feedback
comments. Hence assignments are compulsory components of distance
Pakistan Journal of Distance & Online Learning [Vol. II, Issue II, 2016] 24
mode which must be passed on given criteria. Quality of assignments not
only affects the quality of program but the quality of institution as well.
Tutorial Meetings
During the semester qualified tutors are appointed for the guidance
of students in their each course. For this purpose tutorial sessions are
assigned to tutors which are conducted weekly at registered study
centers. Students are supposed to attend these tutorials for seeking
guidance from their tutors.
Workshops
At the end of semester face to face workshop for each course of
M.Ed program is compulsory component. These workshops are arranged
at prescribed study centers of AIOU. All students are required to attend
these workshops. During these workshop subject exerts, tutors and
resource persons deliver the lectures for each course. Through these
workshops students get chance of face to face interaction with their
tutors and subjects experts for improving their knowledge and skills.
Final Examination
At the end of the semester this exam is conducted for each course
and final examination is form of summative evaluation. . The weightage
of final exam for each course is 70%. Hence the success of the students
depends that students should pass both the assignments and examination.
The weightage of assignments marks are 30%. Overall aggregate 40%
marks for each course are required for qualifying the M.E.d program.
For analyzing the quality of these components existing study was
conducted.
Research Methodology
During the study survey design was adopted. For collection data 200
students and 50 tutors of M.Ed program session 2014 were selected
randomly. A questionnaire on three point scale was developed while
focusing the different aspects such as self-instructional material, teaching
learning process, students support service, workshops, assessment
process and institutional credibility. During the workshops of the
Quality of Teacher Education Program of Distance Mode 25
students questionnaire was administered and information was collected.
For analysis of data percentage was used. On the basis of data analysis
conclusions and recommendations were drawn.
Data Analysis
Table 1
Quality of Curriculum
Teachers
Student
Never
To some
Extent
Mostly
Statement
Mostly
Never
30%
30%
40%
Curriculum/course content
fulfill the national goals
47%
8%
20%
25%
55%
Curriculum/course content
is well structured
51%
18%
45%
35%
20%
Curriculum/course content
according to the mental
level of the learners.
10%
65%
61%
23%
16%
Curriculum/course content
fulfills the needs of
learners.
10%
71%
72%
16%
12%
Course content helps to
cope with global
challenges.
17%
59%
This table shows that majority of the students (47%) and tutors
(40%) agreed that curriculum fulfills the national goals. Respectively
55% tutors and 51% students opined that curriculum was well structured.
Hence 65%, students and 45% tutors agreed that curriculum was not
according to mental level of students. While 71%students and 59% tutors
opined that course content did not fulfill the needs of learned. 72%
tutors and 59% students were of the opinion that course content did not
cope with global challenges.
Pakistan Journal of Distance & Online Learning [Vol. II, Issue II, 2016] 26
Table 2
Quality of Teaching Learning
Teachers
Student
Never
To some
Extent
Mostly
Statement
Mostly
To some
Extent
Never
6%
25%
69%
Recourse person are well
trained and highly qualified.
53%
23%
24%
10%
19%
71%
Resource persons are
knowledgeable about their
field.
57%
21%
22%
18%
23%
59%
Students’ interaction during
teaching learning process is
ensured.
21%
20%
59%
16%
21%
63%
Resource person use
innovative teaching learning
techniques.
37%
49%
14%
10%
18%
72%
Teaching learning activities
focus the Development of
mind, body and heart of
learner.
10%
19%
71%
Above table reveals that majority of the tutors and students (69%&
53%) agreed that resource persons were well qualified and trained. They
were also knowledgeable about their subjects as 71% tutors and 57%
students viewed. Majority of the students 59%, 49% & 71% stated that
students’ interaction, using innovative techniques and balance
development of students were not ensured during teaching learning
process. Hence majority of the tutors (59%, 63%, 72%) respectively
were in favor of these aspects’
Table 3
Quality of Assignments
Teachers
Student
Never
To some
Extent
Mostly
Statement
Mostly
To some
Extent
Never
62%
23%
15%
Quality of assignment is
satisfactory.
56%
26%
18%
11%
10%
79%
Material helps to prepare
the assignment.
76%
19%
5%
13%
21%
66%
Marking of assignments is
satisfactory
24%
23%
53%
13%
36%
51%
Feedback is given by tutors
on assignment
5%
13%
81%
16%
32%
52%
Assignments are sent back
by tutors timely
12%
15%
73%
Quality of Teacher Education Program of Distance Mode 27
The table above showed student and teachers view about quality of
assignments 62% tutors were not satisfied with the quality of
assignments. 81% of students were of the view that feedback is not given
and 73% of students were not agreed with the notion that assignments are
sent back by tutors timely. About half of the students 53% and majority
of teachers 66% were satisfied with the marking of assignments.
Table 4
Quality of Workshop and Tutorials
Teachers
Student
Never
To some
Extent
Mostly
Statement
Mostly
To some
Extent
Never
9%
19%
72%
Workshop and tutorials are
well organized
21%
61%
18%
-
19%
81%
Workshop and tutorials of
each course helps to
understand the text material
53%
27%
20%
21%
23%
56%
Organizers of workshops
are cooperative
31%
53%
16%
62%
31%
7%
Study centers are fully
equipped and congenial for
teaching learning process.
7%
11%
82%
67%
27%
05%
Tutors and students ensure
their participation for
tutorials
8%
19%
73%
The table above depicts the views of teachers and students regarding
quality of workshop and tutorials majority of both teachers (81 percent)
and half of the students (53%) viewed workshops and tutorials as helpful
in understanding the text material 72% of teachers viewed workshops
and tutorials as well organized activities whereas 61% students said that
the workshops and tutorials were well organized to some extent.
Majority of both teachers and students 82% and 62% respectively were
not satisfied with the study centers as being fully equipped and congenial
for teaching and learning process. Participation in tutorials was another
factor where majority both of students and teachers 73% and 67%
viewed as not at all. More than half 56% teachers believed that workshop
organizers are cooperative but 53% students thought workshop
organizers are cooperative only to some extent.
Pakistan Journal of Distance & Online Learning [Vol. II, Issue II, 2016] 28
Table 5
Quality of Assessment Process
Teachers
Student
Never
To some
Extent
Mostly
Statement
Mostly
To some
Extent
Never
20%
21%
59%
Assessment process is fair
12%
21%
67%
10%%
19%
71%
Mal practices are used in
assessment
4%
13%
83%
8%
11%
81%
Assessment policy is clear
to all students
56%
24%
20%
58%
23%
19%
Your recommendations are
acknowledged for improving
the assessment system
8%
13%
79%
89%
11%
Marking system for
examination is reliable.
6%
9%
85%
This table highlights that assessment process is not fair (59% tutors&
67% students viewed). Malpractices are used as 71%tutors and 83%
students agreed. Marking system is not reliable as 89% tutors and
85%students agreed. Hence majority agreed that assessment policy was
clear to students (81% tutors & 56% students). And their
recommendations for improving the assessment system are not
acknowledged as 79% students and 58% tutors opined.
Table 6
Quality of Students support services
Teachers
Student
Never
To some
Extent
Mostly
Statement
Mostly
To some
Extent
Never
59%
12%
23%
System of students support
services is effective
21%
23%
56%
52%
21%
19%
Your query about any
aspect was addressed
properly.
15%
31%
53%
53%
27%
20%
Regional offices facilitate
learners
15%
23%
62%
31%
18%
51%
Academic support is given
to students properly.
19%
29%
53%
21%
23%
56%
Students support services
need improvement.
81%
13%
6%
This table reveals that students support service was not effective
(56% students & 59% tutors). Queries were not addressed properly (53%
Quality of Teacher Education Program of Distance Mode 29
students and 52% tutors viewed). Majority of the respondents (62%
students & 53% tutors) opined that regional offices did not facilitate the
learners. 53% students disagreed and 51% tutors agreed for providing the
proper academic support. 81% students and 56% tutors agreed that
students support services need improvement.
Table 7
Quality of distance education
Teachers
Student
Never
To some
Extent
Mostly
Statement
Mostly
To some
Extent
Never
8%
19%
73%
Distance education system
provides better chances to
students for their
professional development.
79%
17%
4%
58%
23%
19%
Physical infrastructure of
teaching learning venues is
of high quality.
11%
23%
66%
58%
29%
13%
Education facilities are
available for teacher
education program.
19%
27%
54%
46%
33%
21%
Teacher education program
of distance mode is credible
(among the stakeholders).
16%
31%
53%
57%
26%
17%
Teacher education program
of distance mode fulfills the
quality measures.
21%
19%
60%
Above table depicts that distance education mostly provides the
better chance of professional development as 73% tutors and 79%
students viewed. Majority of the respondents (66% &58%) argued that
quality of physical infrastructure was not good. 54% students and 58%
tutors opined that education facilities were not available properly. This
program was not credible among the stakeholders as 53% students and
46% viewed. Majority of respondents (60% students & 57% tutors)
opined that M.Ed of distance mode did not fulfill the quality measures.
Conclusions and Discussion
As quality of curriculum is measured if curriculum fulfills the
prescribed standards, national, international and learners needs and
demands. Hence existing curriculum of M.Ed program of AIOU does not
cope with learners’ needs and global challenges. Though it is well
Pakistan Journal of Distance & Online Learning [Vol. II, Issue II, 2016] 30
structured and fulfills the national goals but it is not according to mental
level of the learners. On the basis of this data it is concluded that quality
of curriculum does not meet the quality standards of distance mode. It
needs improvement as curriculum is the index of M.Ed program and its
quality directly links with quality of program.
No education system is better without its teachers. Majority of the
tutors are well trained, qualified and knowledgeable about their
subjects/fields. Teachers also agree that resource persons effectively use
the innovative teaching learning techniques and encourage the student
interaction during teaching learning process. Overall their teaching
comprises the balance development of students. Hence on the basis of
students perception regarding the quality of teaching learning process it
is concluded that resource persons do not focus students interaction,
balance development of students and use of innovative technology
during their teaching. For analyzing the quality of any educational
program its teaching process is directly measured through measuring
the learning process of learners. Overall for measuring the quality of
teaching learning process academic and professional qualification, using
effective teaching techniques for effective learning, ensuring students
interaction and focusing students’ balance development are quality
indicators of teaching learning process. For measuring the quality of
teaching learning process of distance mode these indicators are ensured.
Hence on the basis of data analysis quality of teaching learning process
of M.Ed program of distance mode needs improvement.
Workshops and tutorials contribute lot to enhance the knowledge of
students about their subjects. These are face to face components for
increasing the interaction among students and tutors. Though both
components bridge up the distance but there is need to improve the
quality of study centers. As many study centers are not fully equipped
with teaching learning facilities. For enhancing the credibility of
workshops and tutorials tutors and students need to ensure their
presences. As lot of complaints have been registered about the absentees
of the students.
Most of the respondents believed that material help in preparation of
assignments. A remarkable difference in opinion of teachers and students
was noted in terms of satisfactory marking, feedback and timely return of
assignments. While focusing the importance of evaluation process in
academic program respondents were asked about the quality of
assessment process. In this regard different characteristics were of
examination systems such as reliability, validity and credibility were
examined. It is concluded that assessment process is not fair due to the
Quality of Teacher Education Program of Distance Mode 31
unreliable marking policy, using mal practices during examination and
assessment. For improving the quality of assessment system teachers and
students frequently give their proposals and information about
weaknesses of assessment system. But these are not acknowledged and
implemented properly. Hence respondents of both categories agreed that
mostly students are well aware about assessment policy. For measuring
the quality of any program its assessment system is given more attention.
As evaluation is taken as decision making about the promotion or
improvement of any activity. If evaluation system is reliable, fair and
transparent then quality of program is appreciated everywhere.
Evaluation process directly links with components of curriculum,
teaching methodology and evaluation system itself. As evaluation is not
an end but it means to end, so it should be fulfill the criteria of fairness,
reliability and usability. But unfortunately the quality of assessment
system of M.Ed program is very poor due to the use of mal practices and
unreliable marking system in examination and assignments. Even though
complaints against poor quality of assessment system if submitted by the
students or by anyone are not addressed properly. Overall for ensuring
the quality of M.Ed program quality of assessment system needs
improvement.
Students support services comprise the policy and guidance related
to supporting students in academic and administrative aspects of their
study program. Through analyzing the quality of students support
services it is concluded that students support service system needs
improvement. As it is supposed to address the queries of students
effectively and timely. Regional office are mainly responsible to
facilitate the students but these are not functioning properly to provide
academic and administrative support to students. Weak students support
service system of AIOU is discouraging the students resultantly they do
not complete their education. For ensuring the quality of M.Ed program
of AIOU students’ support system needs improvement.
Credibility of any program or institution is based on the acceptance
level of the stakeholders at national and international level. To what
extent this program is accredited. For answering this question
respondents’ perspectives were examined. Accordingly majority of the
respondent agree that distance education system provides the better
chance for the professional development of adult learners. But physical
infrastructure of study centers and classrooms is not adequate to fulfill
the requirement of teaching learning activities. Educational facilities are
not available there. These aspects affect the quality of teaching learning
process of distance mode. Due to the short comings of teaching learning
Pakistan Journal of Distance & Online Learning [Vol. II, Issue II, 2016] 32
process stakeholders such as students, employers and parents are not
satisfied with the quality and credibility of degree of M.Ed Program.
Overall respondents are of the opinion that teacher education program of
distance mode does not fulfill quality measures. Hence for enhancing the
credibility of institution nationally and internationally it needs the
changes and improvements in its all components. Though distance mode
is highly appreciated due to its flexibility throughout the world but
programs of AIOU are facing lot of criticism in society due to
ineffectiveness of their components.
Recommendations
All the programs and courses of distance mode should be aligned
with the mission goals and objectives of distance philosophy of
institution. All the components of program must be articulated under
the distinctive nature of learners. Overall study program may fulfill
the local, national and global needs of the learners.
For enhancing the credibility of AIOU and its programs national
policy benchmarks may strictly be observed during the formulation
and execution of academic programs. On the basis of these
benchmarks institution can be compared with other similar
institutions to estimate the credibility level.
Feedback and solicit information and guidance of relevant
stakeholders can be obtained. On the basis of these information
programs can be improved and modified.
Institution must have to take steps for monitoring the quality of all
components such as curriculum, delivery mechanism, workshops,
students support services and assessment process. Through the
quality of these components program will get the credibility among
the stakeholders at national and international level.
Quality of Teacher Education Program of Distance Mode 33
References
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